Charge controllers are indispensable to storing surplus electricity in batteries, They regulate the energy flowing from a photovoltaic system array, transferring the energy directly to the storage system as a DC-coupled system. They play an important function in extending the life of the battery as much as is possible. There are two types of charge controller technology in the marketplace: the PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) and the MPPT (Maximum Power Pointing Technology). The PWM models are regarded as being mostly dependable with smaller grid-connected solar to battery systems. The second and most common type of charge controller utilizes a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technology. They are used for larger systems and offer higher performance through their enhanced ability to extract power from the panels. Additionally, the MPPT controllers have the capacity to connect strings of panels in a series for higher voltages, keeping amperage low and wire size smaller.
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